Timothy C. Clapper, PhD is devoted to the promotion of brain-based learning in health care simulation. Aside from his work with brain-based learning, he is best known for his work in health care simulation, including his Saturation in Training model described in Why Your TeamSTEPPS Program May Not Be Working, his Conflict Theory of Medical Errors described in In Situ and Mobile Simulation: Lessons learned. Authentic and Resource Intensive, and his approach to educating adult learners described in Beyond Knowles: What Those Conducting Simulation Need to Know About Adult Learning Theory. As a Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS™) Master Trainer, Dr. Clapper has improved the teamwork skills and clinical practice of interprofessional teams at numerous healthcare facilities worldwide.
Clapper, T. C., & Ching, K. (2019). Debunking the Myth that the majority of medical errors are attributed to communication. Medical Education. doi: 10.1111/medu.13821 [Online ahead of issue]
Laghezza, M., Clapper, T. C., Christos, P. J., Sharma, R., & Naik, N. (2019). Measuring the impact of a competency-based education conference for PAs and NPs. JAAPA, 32(9), 44-47. DOI:10.1097/01.JAA.0000578772.39180.0c
Rajwani, K., Mauer, E., & Clapper, T. C. (2019). Improving the competence and confidence of pulmonary and critical care medicine fellows in performing a cricothyrotomy. Canadian Medical Education Journa,10(3), e107-e109. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1988-6505
Clapper, T. C., Ching, K. Lee, J. G., Mauer, E., Gerber, L. M., Osorio, S. N., Sobin, B., & DiPace, J. I. (2019). A TeamSTEPPS® implementation plan for recently assigned interns and nurses. Journal of Interprofessional Care.
Clapper T. C. (2018). TeamSTEPPS® is an effective tool to level the hierarchy in healthcare communication by empowering all stakeholders. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 11(4), 241-244. doi:10.1080/17538068.2018.1561806
Clapper T. C., Lee, J., Phillips, J., Rajwani, K., Naik, N., Ching, K. (2018). Gibson’s theory of affordances and situational awareness occurring in urban departments of pediatrics, medicine, and emergency medicine. Educ Health, 31(2), 87-94. doi:10.4103/efh.EfH 33 18
Clapper, T. C., Rajwani, K., Mauer, E., Gerber, L. M., Lee, J. G., Ching, K., Miller, S., & Gudi, K. (2018). A brain-based instruction simulation approach to improve code team response in an internal medicine unit. Simulation & Gaming. [OnlineFirst ahead of issue].
Clapper, T. C., Ching, K. Mauer, E., Gerber, L. M., Lee, J. G., Sobin, B., Ciraolo, K., Osorio, S. N., & DiPace, J. I. (2018). A saturated approach to the four-phase, brain-based simulation framework for TeamSTEPPS® in a pediatric medicine unit. Pediatric Quality and Safety, 4(3). doi:10.1097/pq9.0000000000000086
Kriz, W.C., Harviainen, J. T., & Clapper, T. C. (2018). Game science: Foundations and perspectives. Simulation & Gaming, 49(3), 199 – 206.
Clapper, TC (2018). Editorial: Capitalizing on the most important part of a learning session: The experience. Simulation & Gaming, 49(1) 3–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878118755155
Clapper, T. C. (2018, released July 2017). Theoretical principles to effective simulation. In C. R. Foisy-Doll and K. Leighton, Eds. Simulation Champions: Courage, Caring, and Connection. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Clapper, T. C., & Rice, D. M. (2017). Teaching conflict resolution in the bioecological system: Implementing Winning Colors®. Simulation & Gaming, 48(4), 539-552. doi:10.1177/1046878117709842
Clapper, T. C. (2017). Editorial: Using simulation and gaming to address theory, practice and research in the pursuit of knowledge. Simulation & Gaming, 48(4), 431–434. doi: 10.1177/1046878117723100
Clapper, T. C. (2017). Editorial: Simulation and gaming can be used to determine validity while engaging in collaborative environments. Simulation & Gaming, 48(2), 175-177. doi: 10.1177/1046878117699433
Clapper, T. C. (2016). Proposing a new debrief checklist for TeamSTEPPS® to improve documentation and clinical debriefing. Simulation & Gaming, 47(6), 710-719. doi: 10.1177/1046878116667812
Clapper, T. C. (2016). Editorial: Multidisciplinary enjoyment and learning in Simulation & Gaming, Simulation & Gaming, 47(4), 399-402. doi: 10.1177/1046878116659827
Clapper, T. C. (2016). Editorial: The Way Forward for Simulation & Gaming (S&G). Simulation & Gaming, 47(1), 3-6.
Clapper, T. C. (2015). Theory to practice in simulation: An overview. Simulation & Gaming, 46(2), 131-136. doi:10.1177/1046878115599615
Clapper, T. C. (2015). Cooperative-Based Learning and the Zone of Proximal Development. Simulation & Gaming, 46(2), 148-158. doi:10.1177/1046878115569044
Clapper, T. C. (2014). Next steps in TeamSTEPPS®: Creating a just culture with observation and simulation. Simulation & Gaming, 45(3), 306-317. doi:10.1177/1046878114543638
Clapper, T. C. (2014). Situational interest and instructional design: A guide for simulation facilitators. Simulation & Gaming, 45(2), 167-182. doi: 10.1177/1046878113518482.
Clapper, T. C. (2013). In Situ and Mobile Simulation: Lessons learned...Authentic and Resource Intensive. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(11), e551-e557. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2012.12.005.
Dong, C., Clapper, T. C., & Szyld, D. (2013). A qualitative descriptive study of SimWars as a meaningful instructional tool. International Journal of Medical Education, 4, 139-145. doi: 10.5116/ijme.51d0.7652
Clapper, T. C. (2013, Spring). Saturation in Training, Patient Safety InSight.
Costello, J. M., Clapper, T. C., & Wypij, D. (2013, Mar). Minimizing complications associated with percutaneous central venous catheter placement in children: recent advances. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 14(3), 273-283. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318272009
Clapper, T. C., & Ng, G. M. (2013). Why your TeamSTEPPS program may not be working. Clinical Simulation in Nursing,9(8), e287-e292. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2012.03.007
Clapper, T. C., Li, T.C., Trueger, N. S., & Okuda, Y. (2012). Gauging the effectiveness of brain-based learning and simulation in an airway management course for emergency medicine interns. Journal of Emergency & Disaster Medicine, 1(1), 1-4. www.jedm.org; JEDM2012.6
Meguerdician, M. J., & Clapper, T. C. (2012). The Broselow tape as an effective medication dosing instrument: A review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27(4), 416-420.
Clapper, T. C. (2012). Retention in online courses: Surviving the first week. Evolllution.
Clapper, T. C., & Kardong-Edgren, S. (2012). Using deliberate practice and simulation to improve nursing skills. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(3), e109-e133. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2010.12.001.
Clapper, T. C. (2012). Metacognition: Are your learners really thinking about the content? Evolllution.
Clapper, T. C., Gross, S. J., & Wilcox, W. C. (2012). A comparison of Obstetric maneuvers for the acute management of shoulder dystocia. Letter to the Editor. Obstetrics & Genecology, 119(2), Part 1, 386. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318244b405
Clapper, T. C. (2012). Development of a hybrid simulation course to reduce central line infections. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 43(5), 218-224. doi:10.3928/00220124-20111101-06.
Clapper, T. C., & Kong, M. (2012). TeamSTEPPS: The patient safety tool that needs to be implemented. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(8), e367-e373. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2011.03.002
Clapper, T. C. (2011). Project-based learning: Teaching them to create and produce. PAILAL, 4(1), 1-3. Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2011). Interference in learning: What curriculum developers need to know. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 7(3), e77-e80. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2010.08.001.
Clapper, T. C. (2011). The effect of differentiated instruction on JROTC leadership training. (Ph.D. dissertation). Capella University, United States -- Minnesota. Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3440244).
Clapper, T. C. (2010). The enriched environment: Making multiple connections. Academic Leadership, 8(4).
Clapper, T. C. (2010, Apr). Role play and simulation: Returning to teaching for understanding. The Education Digest, 75(8), 39-43.
Clapper, T. C. (2010, Jan). Beyond Knowles: What those conducting simulation need to know about adult learning theory. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 6(1), e7-e14. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2009.07.003 * *2010 non-research article of the year.
Clapper, T. C. (2010). Creating the safe learning environment. PAILAL Newsletter, 3(2), 1-6. Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2010). Sand tables for learning: Bringing learning to life. PAILAL Newsletter, 3(1). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2009). An ironic twist in learning: The end of the death-by-lecture session. PAILAL Newsletter, 2(3). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2009). Moving away from teaching and becoming a facilitator of learning. PAILAL Newsletter, 2(2). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2009). Recognizing the other gifted learner: The active learner-the hunter child. PAILAL Newsletter, 2(1). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2009). Skills for the 21st century require active learning. PAILAL Newsletter, 1(3). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2008). Using technology to reach your learners. PAILAL Newsletter, 1(2). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2008). Curriculum webs for reaching learners. PAILAL Newsletter, 1(1). Available on EBCOHOST database.
Clapper, T. C. (2008). Differentiated instruction and the multiple intelligences. ASCD Multiple Intelligences Network Newsletter, 14(5). Available at
"Making a noticeable difference in teacher education, clinical simulation, and patient safety"