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Timothy C. Clapper, PhD is an educator-researcher best known for his work in health care simulation, including his Saturation in Training model described in Why Your TeamSTEPPS Program May Not Be Working, his Conflict Theory of Medical Errors described in In Situ and Mobile Simulation: Lessons learned. Authentic and Resource Intensive, and his approach to educating adult learners described in Beyond Knowles: What Those Conducting Simulation Need to Know About Adult Learning Theory. Dr. Clapper has improved the teamwork skills and clinical practice of interprofessional teams at numerous healthcare facilities worldwide.


Shin R., Li K, Hon K., Ching, K., & Clapper, T.C. (2024) A Multi-center Simulation-Based Emergency Medicine Resident Boot Camp Can Improve Teamwork, Communication, and Clinical Skills. Cureus 16(2): e55083. doi:10.7759/cureus.55083


Desta, M. Sewell, T., Clapper, T.C. Rajwani, K. (2024) Simulation Training Can Improve Internal Medicine Residents’ Knowledge and Comfort with Cardiac Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Diagnose Acute Cardiovascular Conditions. Accepted article, International Journal of Healthcare Simulation - Advances in Theory & Practice


Bergman, C.M., Thomas, C., Clapper, T.C., Nellis, M., Yuen, A., Gerber, L., & Ching, K. A simulation-based discharge education program for caregivers of children with tracheostomies: A mixed method study on patient outcomes and parental preparedness. Accepted article, Hospital Pediatrics


Bokka, L., Ciuffo, Francesco, Clapper, T.C. (2024). Why Simulation Matters: A Systematic Review on Medical Errors Occurring During Simulated Health Care. Journal of Patient Safety 20(2), 110-118, March 2024. | DOI: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000001192


Clapper, T. C., Sewell, T. B., Shen, W., Ching, K., Solomon, A. B., Burns, K. P., Martin, P. B., Turetz, M. L, Crawford, C. V., Joyce, C. L., Landres, I. V., & Rajwani, K. (2023, accepted article). Delivering bad or difficult news. An innovative simulation-based education approach to prepare interdisciplinary fellowships. Journal of Communication in Healthcare: Strategies, Media and Engagement in Global Health.


Gross, I.T; Clapper, T.C; Ramachandra, G.; Thomas, A.; Ades, A.; Walsh, B.; Kreuzer, F.; Elkin, R.; Wagner, M.; Whitfill, T.; Chang, T.; Duff, J.; Deutsch, E.; Loellgen, R.; Palaganas, J.; Fayyaz, J.; Kessler, D.; Calhoun, A. Setting an agenda: Results of a consensus process on research directions in distance simulation. Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare 18(2): p 100-107, April 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000663


Clapper T.C. (2022). Mastery learning and deliberate practice: Do simulationists need clarification? Simulation & Gaming. 53(6), 602-614. doi:10.1177/10468781221132850


Harwayne-Gidansky, I., Askin, G., Fein, D. M., McNamara, C., Duncan, E., Delaney, K, Greenberg, J., Mojica M., Clapper, T.C., & Ching, K. (2022). Effectiveness of a simulation curriculum on clinical application: A randomized educational trial. Simulation in Healthcare, 17(2), 71-77. doi:10.1097/SIH.0000000000000598


Clapper T.C. (2021). Getting better together - The two-team training approach in simulation-based education. J Contin Educ Nurs.52(9), 417-422.


Crane, K., Christos, P. J., Clapper, T.C., & Rajwani, K. (2021). High fidelity simulation training: Does it improve internal medicine resident physicians’ confidence, knowledge, and skill performance regarding tracheostomy? Chest,160(4), Supl, A1423. DOI:


Clapper T. C. (2021). Getting better together - The two-team training approach in simulation-based education. J Contin Educ Nurs.52(9), 417-422.


Harwayne-Gidansky, I., Askin, G., Fein, D. M., McNamara, C., Duncan, E., Delaney, K, Greenberg, J., Mojica M., Clapper, T. C., & Ching, K. (2021). Effectiveness of a simulation curriculum on clinical application: A randomized educational trial. Simulation in Healthcare. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000598

Clapper, T.C. (2021, Dec 30). The two-team training approach & healthcare simulation do-overs – Why they matter! Healthy Simulation.


Yuen, A., Rodriguez, N., Osorio, S. N., Nataraj, C., Ward, M. J., Clapper, T. C., Abramson, E., & Ching, K. (2021). Simulation-based Discharge Education Program for Caregivers of Children with Tracheostomies. Hospital Pediatrics, 11(6), 1-9.


Piechowski, W., Clapper, T. C., Park, J., Ching, K., & St. George, J. (2021). A prospective randomized simulation trial comparing our novel AIR-BOX to standard airway equipment storage modalities. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning; 7, 311-318. doi:10.1136/bmjstel-2020-000721

Clapper, T. C. (2021, Mar 8). A prescription for passive gaming: A healthy dose of escape rooms. Healthy Simulation. Escape Rooms: Active Learning Resources for Passive Gaming, HealthySimulation


Díaz, D. A., & Clapper, T. C. (2021). Escape rooms: A novel strategy whose time has come. Simulation & Gaming, (1), 3–6.


Clapper, T. C. (2020). How to use the reflective pause in clinical simulation to maximize learner engagement. Healthy Simulation.


Lafond, E., Clapper, T. C., Easthausen, I., Smith, S., Moulton, M., Rusiewski, N., Griffin, K., Rajwani, K. (2020). The use of a step stool during chest compressions: Does it make a difference and do clinicians choose to use it? Chest, 158(4), 1347A, Suppl.


Clapper T. C., Leighton K. (2020). Incorporating the Reflective Pause in Simulation: A Practical Guide. J Contin Educ Nurs. 51(1) 32-38. doi: 10.3928/00220124-20191217-07


Clapper, T. C. (2020). Embedded and guiding cues: The role of the designer and facilitator in simulation and gaming. Simulation & Gaming, 51(3), 283-286. doi:10.1177/1046878120920387


Clapper, T. C., & Ching, K. (2020). Debunking the Myth that the majority of medical errors are attributed to communication. Medical Education, 54(1), 74-81. doi: 10.1111/medu.13821


Clapper, T. C. (2020, Apr 21). Hope for new reviewers: Some encouragement from an Editor-in-Chief. Sage Journals.

Clapper, T. C. (2020). Vigorous writing is concise, research is rigorous. Simulation & Gaming, 51(6), 739-743. doi: 10.1177/1046878120954567


Laghezza, M., Clapper, T. C., Christos, P. J., Sharma, R., & Naik, N. (2019). Measuring the impact of a competency-based education conference for PAs and NPs. JAAPA, 32(9), 44-47. DOI:10.1097/01.JAA.0000578772.39180.0c


Rajwani, K., Mauer, E., & Clapper, T. C. (2019). Improving the competence and confidence of pulmonary and critical care medicine fellows in performing a cricothyrotomy. Canadian Medical Education Journal, 10(3), e107-e109.


Clapper, T. C., Ching, K. Lee, J. G., Mauer, E., Gerber, L. M., Osorio, S. N., Sobin, B., & DiPace, J. I. (2019). A TeamSTEPPS® implementation plan for recently assigned interns and nurses. Journal of Interprofessional Care.

Clapper, T. C. (2019). A Tribute to some of our pioneers, past and present as we move beyond 50 years with simulation & gaming. Simulation & Gaming, 51(1), 3-6. doi: 10.1177/1046878119899748


Clapper, T. C. (2019). Addressing real needs with simulation-based tools and good research methods. Simulation & Gaming, 50(4), 415-418. doi: 10.1177/1046878119870930


Clapper T. C. (2018). TeamSTEPPS® is an effective tool to level the hierarchy in healthcare communication by empowering all stakeholders. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 11(4), 241-244. doi:10.1080/17538068.2018.1561806


Clapper T. C., Lee, J., Phillips, J., Rajwani, K., Naik, N., Ching, K. (2018). Gibson’s theory of affordances and situational awareness occurring in urban departments of pediatrics, medicine, and emergency medicine. Educ Health, 31(2), 87-94. doi:10.4103/efh.EfH 33 18


Clapper, T. C., Rajwani, K., Mauer, E., Gerber, L. M., Lee, J. G., Ching, K., Miller, S., & Gudi, K. (2018). A brain-based instruction simulation approach to improve code team response in an internal medicine unit. Simulation & Gaming, 49(5), 479-496.

Clapper, T. C. (2018). Serious games are not all serious. Simulation & Gaming, 49(4), 375-377. doi: 10.1177/1046878118789763


Clapper, T. C., Ching, K. Mauer, E., Gerber, L. M., Lee, J. G., Sobin, B., Ciraolo, K., Osorio, S. N., & DiPace, J. I. (2018). A saturated approach to the four-phase, brain-based simulation framework for TeamSTEPPS® in a pediatric medicine unit. Pediatric Quality and Safety, 4(3). doi:10.1097/pq9.0000000000000086


Kriz, W.C., Harviainen, J. T., & Clapper, T. C. (2018). Game science: Foundations and perspectives. Simulation & Gaming, 49(3), 199 – 206.


Clapper, T. C. (2018). Editorial: Capitalizing on the most important part of a learning session: The experience. Simulation & Gaming, 49(1) 3–7.


Clapper, T. C. (2018, released July 2017). Theoretical principles to effective simulation. In C. R. Foisy-Doll and K. Leighton, Eds. Simulation Champions: Courage, Caring, and Connection.  Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.


Clapper, T. C., & Rice, D. M. (2017). Teaching conflict resolution in the bioecological system: Implementing Winning Colors®. Simulation & Gaming, 48(4), 539-552. doi:10.1177/1046878117709842


Clapper, T. C. (2017). Editorial: Using simulation and gaming to address theory, practice and research in the pursuit of knowledge. Simulation & Gaming, 48(4), 431–434. doi: 10.1177/1046878117723100


Clapper, T. C. (2017). Editorial: Simulation and gaming can be used to determine validity while engaging in collaborative environments. Simulation & Gaming, 48(2), 175-177. doi: 10.1177/1046878117699433


Clapper, T. C. (2016). Proposing a new debrief checklist for TeamSTEPPS® to improve documentation and clinical debriefing. Simulation & Gaming, 47(6), 710-719. doi: 10.1177/1046878116667812


Clapper, T. C. (2016). Editorial: Multidisciplinary enjoyment and learning in Simulation & Gaming, Simulation & Gaming, 47(4), 399-402. doi: 10.1177/1046878116659827


Clapper, T. C. (2016). Editorial: The Way Forward for Simulation & Gaming (S&G). Simulation & Gaming, 47(1), 3-6. doi: 10.1177/1046878116633349


Clapper, T. C. (2015). Theory to practice in simulation: An overview. Simulation & Gaming, 46(2), 131-136. doi:10.1177/1046878115599615


Clapper, T. C. (2015). Cooperative-Based Learning and the Zone of Proximal Development. Simulation & Gaming, 46(2), 148-158. doi:10.1177/1046878115569044


Clapper, T. C. (2014). Next steps in TeamSTEPPS®: Creating a just culture with observation and simulation. Simulation & Gaming, 45(3), 306-317. doi:10.1177/1046878114543638


Clapper, T. C. (2014). Situational interest and instructional design: A guide for simulation facilitators. Simulation & Gaming, 45(2), 167-182. doi: 10.1177/1046878113518482.


Clapper, T. C. (2013). In Situ and Mobile Simulation: Lessons learned...Authentic and Resource Intensive. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(11), e551-e557. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2012.12.005.


Dong, C., Clapper, T. C., & Szyld, D. (2013). A qualitative descriptive study of SimWars as a meaningful instructional tool. International Journal of Medical Education, 4, 139-145. doi: 10.5116/ijme.51d0.7652


Clapper, T. C. (2013, Spring). Saturation in Training, Patient Safety InSight.


Costello, J. M., Clapper, T. C., & Wypij, D. (2013, Mar). Minimizing complications associated with percutaneous central venous catheter placement in children: recent advances. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 14(3), 273-283. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318272009


Clapper, T. C., & Ng, G. M. (2013). Why your TeamSTEPPS program may not be working. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(8), e287-e292. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2012.03.007


Clapper, T. C., Li, T.C., Trueger, N. S., & Okuda, Y. (2012). Gauging the effectiveness of brain-based learning and simulation in an airway management course for emergency medicine interns. Journal of Emergency & Disaster Medicine, 1(1), 1-4.; JEDM2012.6 


Meguerdician, M. J., & Clapper, T. C. (2012). The Broselow tape as an effective medication dosing instrument: A review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27(4), 416-420.


Clapper, T. C. (2012). Retention in online courses: Surviving the first week. Evolllution. 


Clapper, T. C., & Kardong-Edgren, S. (2012). Using deliberate practice and simulation to improve nursing skills. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(3), e109-e133. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2010.12.001. 


Clapper, T. C. (2012). Metacognition: Are your learners really thinking about the content? Evolllution. 


Clapper, T. C., Gross, S. J., & Wilcox, W. C. (2012). A comparison of Obstetric maneuvers for the acute management of shoulder dystocia. Letter to the Editor. Obstetrics & Genecology, 119(2), Part 1, 386. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318244b405 


Clapper, T. C. (2012). Development of a hybrid simulation course to reduce central line infections. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 43(5), 218-224. doi:10.3928/00220124-20111101-06. 


Clapper, T. C., & Kong, M. (2012). TeamSTEPPS: The patient safety tool that needs to be implemented. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(8), e367-e373. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2011.03.002 


Clapper, T. C. (2011). Project-based learning: Teaching them to create and produce. PAILAL, 4(1), 1-3. Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2011). Interference in learning: What curriculum developers need to know. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 7(3), e77-e80. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2010.08.001. 

Clapper, T. C. (2011). The effect of differentiated instruction on JROTC leadership training. (Ph.D. dissertation).  Capella University, United States -- Minnesota. Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3440244).


Clapper, T. C. (2010). The enriched environment: Making multiple connections. Academic Leadership, 8(4). 


Clapper, T. C. (2010, Apr). Role play and simulation: Returning to teaching for understanding. The Education Digest, 75(8), 39-43.


Clapper, T. C. (2010, Jan). Beyond Knowles: What those conducting simulation need to know about adult learning theory. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 6(1), e7-e14. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2009.07.003 * *2010 non-research article of the year.


Clapper, T. C. (2010). Creating the safe learning environment. PAILAL, 3(2), 1-6. Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2010). Sand tables for learning: Bringing learning to life. PAILAL, 3(1). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2009). An ironic twist in learning: The end of the death-by-lecture session. PAILAL, 2(3). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2009). Moving away from teaching and becoming a facilitator of learning. PAILAL 2(2). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2009). Recognizing the other gifted learner: The active learner-the hunter child. PAILAL, 2(1). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2009). Skills for the 21st century require active learning. PAILAL 1(3). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2008). Using technology to reach your learners. PAILAL, 1(2). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2008). Curriculum webs for reaching learners. PAILAL, 1(1). Available on EBCOHOST database.


Clapper, T. C. (2008). Differentiated instruction and the multiple intelligences. ASCD Multiple Intelligences Network Newsletter, 14(5). Available at


"Making a noticeable difference in teacher education, clinical simulation, and patient safety"

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